Probiotics are live microorganisms which are either the identical or similar to microorganisms naturally located inside the human intestine and may be valuable to health. The digestive system is residence to approximately 500 distinctive species of bacteria. They help maintain the intestines healthy and help in digesting food.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) makes use of other terms for live microbes for regulatory purposes; live microbes used in animal feeds are referred to as “directfed microbials”, and, when intended for use as human drugs, they are classified as “live biotherapeutics”.
Most probiotic products contain bacteria from the genera Lactobacillus or, even though other genera, including Enterococcus, Bacillus, Propionibacterium, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Saccharomyces have been developed as probiotics. Large populations of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the intestinal tract are normally an indication of a healthy gut.
Probiotics commonly used in the United States include Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. There are actually numerous specific species of bacteria within each of these two groups, and health benefits linked with particular type may not hold true for others.
Regulation of Probiotics
The specifications for any beneficial strain to be considered a probiotic are basic. The beneficial strain have to be alive when used, have to be registered to possess a health benefit and have to be managed at levels shown to confer the benefit. A affordable approach for companies promoting a product that contains a probiotic is to use guidelines established by a working group convened jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO/UN) and the World Health Organization (WHO), which consist of the following criteria:
- Exact identification of the origin and biochemical properties of all probiotics in each product, with certificate of type strain for all strains from an well-known culture collection
- Characterization of every single strain for traits critical to its safety and function
- Determination of overall health benefits in human trials, including identification of the quantity of the microorganism expected to provide the benefit
- Reliable and not confusing labeling of efficacy statements and content material through the end of shelf life
Issues have also been increased in regards to the quality of probiotic products. Some products have been identified to contain smaller numbers of live probiotic strains than announced. Furthermore, some products have been identified to contain probiotic strains other than those listed as ingredients.
Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics
Probiotic strains of the same group can be different, which has been proven through controlled tests, while equivalent data in humans are uncommon. Therefore, clinical results from particular trial can be applied only to the strain or strains being evaluated in that trial. Given this, nevertheless, different strains may have the same effects, and similar immune effects have been described for different strains.
Probiotics taken orally can be destroyed due to the acidic conditions of the stomach. Preservation methods are being developed to deal with this issue.
Benefits of Probiotics
Probiotics are also gradually more used as functional supplements in dairy and new products such as soymilk, fruit juices, meat derivatives, and cereal-based foods, with registered physiological benefits. Probiotics have been claimed to suppress diarrhea, alleviate lactose intolerance and postoperative complications, reduce irritable bowel symptoms (IBS), protect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through numerous suggested mechanisms.
The consumption of probiotics is increasing quickly in the United States, as is demonstrated by the increasing interest of manufacturers, consumers, and scientists. According to professionals involve this booming sector, trials should be carried out carefully to ensure that product formulations and communications about these products are done responsibly and with the main goal is to bring benefits to consumers.
Both the science and its limitations should be communicated in a precise way. The misunderstood of the term “probiotic” and do not realize the importance of the dose specificity and strain specificity of effects is an issue should be considered seriously. There is a great need for controlled trials in humans to record additional health benefits of probiotics as part of the daily diet. Significant target groups for such trials include healthy people, people at high risk for the disease, and people looking at dietary-management techniques to control symptoms. In the near future, probiotics could also be studied for use as drugs and are managed in a systematic way by FDA.
- Probiotic – Wikipedia
- Probiotics Basics – California Dairy Research Foundation
- Oral Probiotics – An Introduction – NCCAM/NIH
- What are Probiotics – WebMD